Accelerator Systems and Components
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Superconducting Magnets Challenges for the Future  
  • L. Rossi
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI), Italy
  Funding: This work is partly funded by EC-H2020-Hitriplus GA n.101008548 and by EC-H2020-IFAST GA n. 101004730
Superconducting (SC) magnets has accompanied the development of accelerators in the last 50 years. Starting from the pioneering work for the SC cyclotron in MSU, Chalk River and Milano, to the large FAIR complex, the progress of SC magnets has accompanied the increase in energy and intensity of the accelerators for heavy ions, too. SC magnets are now used for hadron therapy with heavy ions, with the installation and operation of the SC gantry in the carbon therapy center at HIMAC in Japan. The challenges for future SC magnet expand over three frontiers: I) the high field frontier, to enable higher beam energies; II) the fast-pulsing operation frontier, to enable high intensity beams, with high repetition rate synchrotrons; III) medical application frontier, noticeably in hadron therapy, where simple, reliable, medium field SC magnets with affordable cost can become of common use, expanding the utilization of heavy ion therapy.
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Surface Treatment Procedures to Mitigate Ion-Induced Desorption in Heavy Ion Accelerators  
  • V. Velthaus, M. Bender, C. Trautmann
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  Ion-induced desorption is a serious limitation for stable operation of high beam intensities in heavy ion synchrotrons. Next generation heavy ion accelerators like FAIR or SPIRAL2 are designed for intensities that are orders of magnitude higher than the intensity of existing machines. Hence, ion-induced desorption becomes a big challenge. To better understand and control the influence of material and surface factors, desorption measurements with swift heavy ions (Ca and Au at 4.8 MeV/u) were conducted with focus on oxygen-free copper and tungsten samples. The surfaces were treated by different combinations of milling, lapping, polishing, etching and sputtering. Some of the samples were coated by carbon, titanium nitride or TiZrV. For all tested samples desorption yields (number of released molecules per impacting ion) for H2, H2O, CO, CO2, O2 and Ar will be presented. For copper, surface cleaning by sputtering with 5 keV argon ions reduces the desorption yield significantly. Another promising method to reduce ion-induced desorption is thermal annealing at 400 °C for about 4 h under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Suitable annealing and cleaning parameters will be presented.  
slides icon Slides TU1C2 [2.891 MB]  
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Turbopumps: Lowest Vibration and Highest Uptime Made with Laser Balancing Technology  
  • A. Hannweg
    Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, Asslar, Germany
  The balance quality of a rotor has an influence on its uptime and vibration. With a rotor speed of up to 1500 Hz, it is particularly large for turbopumps, which therefore are sensitive to the smallest mass unbalances. A certain unbalance cannot be completely avoided, which will always lead to a rotating radial force and thus vibrations. Reducing the unbalance is a necessity for the safe and reliable operation of turbopumps and has a positive impact on numerous vibration sensitive applications. Furthermore, the reduction of the radial forces extends the lifetime of the bearing that supports the rotor, which lowers the maintenance frequency. In the past, the best balance was achieved by adding additional mass (balancing screws), or by removing mass with machining processes. The latest and currently most efficient method is Laser Balancing, where the unbalance compensation is achieved by removing rotor material in the form of segments with the technique of laser ablation. This innovative technology was developed and patented by Pfeiffer Vacuum.  
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TU3C3 Preparation of Low-Energy Heavy Ion Beams in a Compact Linear Accelerator/Decelerator 63
  • Z. Andelkovic, S. Fedotova, W. Geithner, P. Gerhard, F. Herfurth, I. Kraus, M.T. Maier, A. Reiter, G. Vorobyev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • N.S. Stallkamp
    IKF, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  High precision tests of fundamental theories can often unfold their full potential only by using highly charged ions (HCI) at very low energies. Although in light of the envisaged energies at FAIR, experiments in the keV to MeV range may sound like backpedaling, these two techniques are in fact complementary, since the production of heavy HCI is virtually impossible without prior acceleration and electron stripping. However, subsequent preparation, transport, storage and detection of low-energy HCI bring new, surprising sets of problems and limitations. Here we will give an overview of the CRYRING@ESR local injector and the HITRAP linear decelerator. These two facilities consist out of one or two accelerator or decelerator stages, with a total length of around 10 meters, making them "compact" in comparison to other GSI accelerators. The following sections describe their main design parameters, the achieved ion numbers, challenges of beam detection, as well as some special features such as multi-turn injection and single-shot energy analyzers. The conclusion will present the current status and will also give an outlook of the planned applications of low-energy ions at the FAIR facility.  
slides icon Slides TU3C3 [3.244 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 20 June 2022 — Revised ※ 01 July 2022 — Accepted ※ 01 July 2022 — Issue date ※ 10 August 2022
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TUP03 Bunch Merging and Compression: Recent Progress with RF and LLRF Systems for FAIR 67
  • D.E.M. Lens, R. Balß, H. Klingbeil, U. Laier, J.S. Schmidt, K.G. Thomin, T. Winnefeld, B. Zipfel
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • H. Klingbeil
    TEMF, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
  Besides the realization of several new RF systems for the new heavy-ion synchrotron SIS100 and the storage rings CR and HESR, the FAIR project also includes an upgrade of the RF systems of the existing accelerator rings such as SIS18. The SIS18 RF systems currently comprise two ferrite cavities, three broadband magnetic-alloy cavities and one bunch-compressor cavity. In addition, the LLRF system has been continuously upgraded over the past years towards the planned topology that will be implemented for all FAIR ring accelerators. One of the challenges for the SIS18 RF systems is the large RF frequency span between 400 kHz and 5.4 MHz. Although the SIS18 upgrade is still under progress, a major part of the functionality has already been successfully tested with beam in machine development experiments (MDE). This includes multi-harmonic operation such as dual-harmonic acceleration and further beam gymnastics manipulations such as bunch merging and bunch compression. Many of these features are already used in standard operation. In this contribution, the current status is illustrated and recent MDE results are presented that demonstrate the capabilities of the RF systems for FAIR.  
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About • Received ※ 21 June 2022 — Revised ※ 30 June 2022 — Accepted ※ 01 July 2022 — Issue date ※ 10 August 2022
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TUP04 New Method for Overcoming Dipole Effects of 4-Rod RFQs 72
  • S. Wunderlich, C. Zhang
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  A new design of a 4-rod RFQ has been developed and simulated. In contrast to conventional designs, it uses asymmetrical stem geometry in the vertical-longitudinal plane. The effect on dipole fields for different geometrical parameters were examined and will be discussed.  
poster icon Poster TUP04 [0.300 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 21 June 2022 — Revised ※ 19 July 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 19 September 2022
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TUP11 Upgrade and Operation of the ATLAS Radiation Interlock System (ARIS) 96
  • B.R. Blomberg, B. Back, K.J. Bunnell, J.A. Clark, M.R. Hendricks, C.E. Peters, J. Reyna, G. Savard, D. Stanton, L. Weber
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract number DE-AC02-06CH11357.
ATLAS (the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator Sys-tem) is a superconducting heavy ion accelerator which can accelerate nearly all stable, and some unstable, iso-topes between hydrogen and uranium. Prompt radiation fields from gamma and or neutron are typically below 1 rem/hr at 30 cm, but are permitted up to 300 rem/hr at 30 cm. The original ATLAS Radiation Interlock System (ARIS), hereafter referred to as ARIS 1.0 was installed 30 years ago. While it has been a functional critical safe-ty system, its age has exposed the facility to high risk of temporary shutdown due to failure of obsolete compo-nents. Topics discussed will be architecture, hardware improvements, functional improvements, and operation permitting personnel access to areas with low levels of radiation.
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About • Received ※ 30 June 2022 — Revised ※ 10 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 04 September 2022 — Issue date ※ 19 September 2022
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TUP14 Study of Injection Line of the Cyclotrons C70XP of Arronax 100
  • T. Durand, R. Bellamy, C. Castel, F. Haddad, C. Koumeir, F. Poirier, H. Trichet
    Cyclotron ARRONAX, Saint-Herblain, France
  • T. Adam, P.G. Graehling, M. Heine, C. Maazouzi, F.R. Osswald
    IPHC, Strasbourg Cedex 2, France
  • F. Haddad
    SUBATECH, Nantes, France
  Funding: Work supported by grants from the French National Agency for Research, Arronax-Plus n°ANR-11-EQPX-0004, IRON n°ANR-11-LABX-18-01 and Next n°ANR-16-IDE-0007 and PhD scholarship from the IN2P3/CNRS.
The cyclotron C70XP is an accelerator built for the production of non-conventional radionuclides for nuclear medicine, research in physics, radio-chemistry and biology. Its injection section has been designed for 4 types of ions (HH+, D-, He2+ & H), 3 types of ions reach the end of the beamline (H+, He2+ & D+) at the maximum energy of 70 MeV (H & He2+). It is important that regular and standard runs provide similar beam features with a good emittance quality. An investigation, focused on the beam in the injection, cover beam measurements and potential beam geometry constraints. The beam transverse characteristics in the injection line has been studied with an Allison-type emittance meter and a simple instrumented collimator installed inside the injection line *. With these 2 devices, it is scrutinized how the beam emittance evolves as a function of settings of the injection magnets and the source parameters **. Dependencies found between the emittance, beam hotspots and tunings are discussed, as well as the protection performed by the collimator. Future of this work with a potential collimator design is introduced.
*F.Poirier and al., ’The Injection and Chopper-Based System at Arronax C70XP Cyclotron’
**F. Poirier and al., ’Installation, Use and Follow-Up of an Emittance-Meter at the Arronax Cyclotron 70XP’
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About • Received ※ 21 June 2022 — Revised ※ 27 June 2022 — Accepted ※ 01 July 2022 — Issue date ※ 10 August 2022
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TH1C3 Automation of RF and Cryomodule Operation at FRIB 136
  • S. Zhao, E. Bernal, W. Chang, E. Daykin, E. Gutierrez, W. Hartung, S.H. Kim, S.R. Kunjir, T.L. Larter, D.G. Morris, J.T. Popielarski, H.T. Ren, T. Xu
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science under Cooperative Agreement DE-SC0000661.
The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) has been commissioned, with rare isotopes first produced in December 2021 and first user experiments conducted in May 2022. The FRIB driver linear accelerator (linac) uses 6 room temperature cavities, 324 superconducting cavities, and 69 superconducting solenoids to accelerate ions to more than 200 MeV/nucleon. Because of the large scale, automation is essential for reliable linac operation with high availability. Automation measures implemented during linac commissioning include turn-on of the cavities and solenoids, turn-on and fast recovery for room temperature devices, and emergency shut down of linac devices. Additional automated tasks include conditioning of multipacting barriers in the cavities and calibration of the control valves for the pneumatic tuners. To ensure a smooth transition to operations, we are currently working on real-time health monitoring of the linac cryomodules, including critical signals such as X-ray levels, RF coupler temperatures, and cryogenic parameters. In this paper, we will describe our automation procedures, the implementation details, and the experience we gained.
slides icon Slides TH1C3 [1.966 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 21 June 2022 — Revised ※ 25 July 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 19 September 2022
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TH1C4 Cavity Designs for the CH3 to CH11 and Bellow Tuner Investigation of the Superconducting Heavy Ion Accelerator HELIAC 140
  • T. Conrad, H. Podlech, M. Schwarz
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher, W.A. Barth, F.D. Dziuba, T. Kürzeder, S. Lauber, J. List, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher
    IKP, Mainz, Germany
  • W.A. Barth, M. Basten, F.D. Dziuba, V. Gettmann, M. Heilmann, T. Kürzeder, S. Lauber, J. List, M. Miski-Oglu, A. Rubin, A. Schnase, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  New CH-DTL cavities designs of the planned Helmholtz Linear Accelerator (HELIAC) are developed in collaboration of GSI, HIM and IAP Frankfurt. The in cw-mode operating linac with a final energy of 7.3 MeV/u, is intended for various experiments, in particular with heavy ions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier for research on SHE. Twelve sc CH cavities are foreseen, divided into four different cryostats each equipped with two dynamic bellow tuner. After successful beam tests with CH0, CH3 to CH11 were designed. Based on the experience gained so far, optimizations were made, which will lead to both an increase in performance in terms of reducing the peak fields limiting superconductivity and a reduction in manufacturing costs and time. In order to optimize manufacturing, attention was paid to design many parts of the cavity, such as lids, spokes, tuner and helium shell, with the same geometrical dimensions. In addition, a tuner test rig was developed, which will be used to investigate the mechanical properties of the bellow tuner. For this purpose, different simulations were made in order to realize conditions as close as possible to reality in the test rig.  
slides icon Slides TH1C4 [6.439 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 27 June 2022 — Revised ※ 19 July 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 19 September 2022
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Redundancy Concepts for Improved MTBF of RF Systems in Particle Accelerator Facilities  
  • M. Lau, R. Heilig, D. Hollmann, M. Schweizer, J. Weber
    TRUMPF Huettinger GmbH, Freiburg, Germany
  • M. Beyer
    HBH Microwave GmbH, Stutensee, Germany
  System availability and reliability are key for particle accelerator facilities. The risk of downtime is directly correlated to the performance of crucial components, e.g the RF technology. Therefore, measures are required for avoiding any unwanted system failure. One of our approaches to drastically improve the MTBF of our Solid State Power Amplifier is providing different levels of redundancy of crucial and critical components. Here we want to present the influence of different redundancy levels on the MTBF of Solid State Power Amplifier Systems by increasing the number of transistors and power supplies in a modular design. By this design we can provide customized solutions meeting the individual demand on reliability for particle accelerators. Since the to be expected MTBF of RF amplifier is usually not correlated to redundancy levels we try to follow an approach by reaching different values of the predicted MTBF by adapting the number of transistors used.  
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